Username   Password       Forgot your password?  Forgot your username? 

Solar Cell Surface Defects Detection based on Computer Vision

Volume 13, Number 7, November 2017 - Paper 6  - pp. 1048-1056
DOI: 10.23940/ijpe.17.07.p6.10481056

Xiaoliang Qian, Heqing Zhang, Huanlong Zhang, Yuanyuan Wu, Zhihua Diao, Qing-E Wu, Cunxiang Yang*

School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou, 450002, China

(Submitted on July 25, 2017; Revised on August 30, 2017; Accepted on September 15, 2017)


Various types of defects exist in the solar cell surface because of some uncontrollable factors during the process of production. The solar cell surface defects detection is indispensable for the production of solar cell. The automatic defects detection methods based on computer vision have been widely used because of its convenience, real time and low cost. The state-of-the-art methods of solar cell surface defects detection based on computer vision are reviewed in this paper. Firstly, the typical defects of solar cell surface are summarized. Secondly, the state-of-the-art methods are classified into three categories: local scheme, global scheme and local-global scheme based methods, and separately introduced. Thirdly, the qualitative and exact evaluations of state-of-the-art methods are presented. The main contents of this paper and future development trends are summarized in the end.


References: 41

        1. M. Abbott, P. Cousins, F. Chen, and J. Cotter, "Laser-induced Defects in Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells," in Proceedings of the Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 1241-1244, Florida, USA, January 2005.
        2. A. Aghamohammadi, A. Prabuwono, S. Sahran, and M. Mogharrebi, "Solar Cell Panel Crack Detection Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Pattern Analysis and Intelligent Robotics, pp. 160-164, Putrajaya, Malaysia, June 2011.
        3. K. Agroui, M. Pellegrino, and F. Giovanni, "Analysis Techniques for Photovoltaic Modules Based on Amorphous Solar Cells," Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 375-381, January 2017.
        4. A. V. Andonova, G. Dobrikov, I. Zhivkov, and B. Bonev, "Degradation Detection as a Result of Ageing Organic Solar Cells by Thermography," in Proceedings of the Electronic System-Integration Technology Conference, pp. 1-4, Grenoble, France, September 2016.
        5. S. A. Anwar and M. Z. Abdullah, "Micro-crack Detection of Multicrystalline Solar Cells Featuring an Improved Anisotropic Diffusion Filter and Image Segmentation Technique," Eurasip Journal on Image & Video Processing, vol. 2014, no. 1, pp. 1-17, December 2014.
        6. W. S. M. Brooks, D. A. Lamb, and S. J. C. Irvine, "IR Reflectance Imaging for Crystalline Si Solar Cell Crack Detection," IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1271-1275, September 2015.
        7. X. Y. Chen, A. Pedersen, O. G. Hellesø, and A. D. V. Rheenen, "Electrical Noise of Laser Diodes Measured over a Wide Range of Bias Currents," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 1925-1928, November 2000.
        8. Y. C. Chiou, J. Z. Liu, and Y. T. Liang, "Micro Crack Detection of Multi-crystalline Silicon Solar Wafer Using Machine Vision Techniques," Sensor Review, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 154-165, Number 2011.
        9. W. Dallas, O. Polupan, and S. Ostapenko, "Resonance Ultrasonic Vibrations for Crack Detection in Photovoltaic Silicon Wafers," Measurement Science & Technology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 852-858, February 2007.
        10. M. Demant, S. Rein, J. Krisch, S. Schoenfelder, and C. Fischer, "Detection and Analysis of Micro-cracks in Multi-crystalline Silicon Wafers during Solar Cell Production," in Proceedings of the Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), pp. 001641-001646, Santorini, USA, June 2011.
        11. M. Demant, T. Welschehold, M. Oswald, S. Bartsch, T. Brox, S. Schoenfelder, et al., "Microcracks in Silicon Wafers I: Inline Detection and Implications of Crack Morphology on Wafer Strength," IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-10, January 2016.
        12. S. Duenas, E. Perez, H. Castan, and H. Garcia, "The Role of Defects in Solar Cells: Control and Detection Defects in Solar Cells," in Proceedings of the Electron Devices (CDE), pp. 301-304, Valladolid, Spain, February, 2013.
        13. Z. Fu, Y. Zhao, Y. Liu, and Q. Cao, "Solar Cell Crack Inspection by Image Processing," in Proceedings of the Business of Electronic Product Reliability and Liability, pp. 77-80, Shanghai, China, April 2004.
        14. T. Fuyuki and A. Kitiyanan, "Photographic Diagnosis of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells Utilizing Electroluminescence," Applied Physics A Materials Science & Processing, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 189-196, July 2009.
        15. F. Gong, X. W. Zhang, and H. Sun, "Detection System for Solar Module Surface Defects Based on Constrained ICA Model and PSO Method," Acta Optica Sinica, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 169-177, April 2012.
        16. G. B. Kim, "Micro Defect Detection in Solar Cell Wafer Based on Hybrid Illumination and Near-infrared Optics," in Proceedings of the Control Conference (ASCC), pp. 1-5, Istanbul, Turkey, June 2013.
        17. S. S. Ko, C. S. Liu, and Y. C. Lin, "Optical Inspection System with Tunable Exposure Unit for Micro-crack Detection in Solar Wafers," Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, vol. 124, no. 124, pp. 4030-4035, October 2013.
        18. D. Lausch, T. Mehl, K. Petter, A. S. Flø, I. Burud, and E. Olsen, "Classification of Crystal Defects in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Wafer Using Spectrally and Spatially Resolved Photoluminescence," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 119, no. 5, pp. 223-136, February 2016.
        19. S. W. Lee, D. J. Lee, and H. S. Park, "A New Methodology for Gray-scale Character Segmentation and Recognition," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1045-1050, October 1996.
        20. W. C. Li and D. M. Tsai, "Wavelet-based Defect Detection in Solar Wafer Images with Inhomogeneous Texture," Pattern Recognition, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 742-756, February 2012.
        21. C. J. Lu and D. M. Tsai, "Automatic Defect Inspection for LCDs Using Singular Value Decomposition," International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 25, no. 1-2, pp. 53-61, January 2005.
        22. Z. Mahdavipour and M. Z. Abdullah, "Micro-crack Detection of Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Wafer," Iete Technical Review, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1-7, April 2015.
        23. C. Network, "," May 2016.
        24. X. L. Qian, H. Q. Zhang, H. L. Zhang, Z. D. He, and C. X. Yang, "Solar Cells Surface Defect Detection Based on Visual Saliency," Chinese Journal of Scientific Instrument, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1570-1578, July 2017.
        25. D. E. Sawyer and H. K. Kessler, "Laser Scanning of Solar Cells for the Display of Cell Operating Characteristics and Detection of Cell Defects," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 864-872, April 1980.
        26. S. Spataru, P. Hacke, and D. Sera, "Automatic Detection and Evaluation of Solar Cell Micro-cracks in Electroluminescence Images Using Matched Filters," in Proceedings of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 1602-1607, Portland, USA, June 2016.
        27. R. Stephan, I. E. Reis, K. Wolfram, F. M. Aylin, S. Jonas, B. Herfried, et al., "Research on Efficiency Limiting Defects and Defect Engineering in Silicon Solar Cells - Results of the German Research Cluster SolarFocus," Physica Status Solidi, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 733–738, March 2011.
        28. Y. Takahashi, Y. Kaji, A. Ogane, and Y. Uraoka, "-"Luminoscopy"-Novel Tool for the Diagnosis of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules Utilizing Electroluminescence," in Proceedings of the Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, pp. 924-927, Waikoloa, USA, May 2006.
        29. T. W. Teo and M. Z. Abdullah, "In-line Photoluminescence Imaging of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells for Micro-crack Detection," in Proceedings of the Imaging Systems and Techniques, pp. 66-70, Chania, Greece, October 2016.
        30. T. W. Teo, Z. Mahdavipour, and M. Z. Abdullah, "High-speed Micro-crack Detection of Solar Wafers with Variable Thickness," in Proceedings of the Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST), pp. 237-241, Santorini, Greece, October 2014.
        31. D. M. Tsai and J. Y. Luo, "Mean Shift-Based Defect Detection in Multicrystalline Solar Wafer Surfaces," IEEE Journals & Magazines, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 125-135, February 2011.
        32. D. M. Tsai, S. C. Wu, and W. C. Li, "Defect Detection of Solar Cells in Electroluminescence Images Using Fourier Image Reconstruction," Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, vol. 99, no. 99, pp. 250-262, April 2012.
        33. D. M. Tsai, S. C. Wu, and W. Y. Chiu, "Defect Detection in Solar Modules Using ICA Basis Images," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 122-131, February 2013.
        34. D. M. Tsai, G. N. Li, W. C. Li, and W. Y. Chiu, "Defect Detection in Multi-crystal Solar Cells Using Clustering with Uniformity Measures, " Advanced Engineering Informatics, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 419-430, August 2015.
        35. N. Wang, "Silicon Solar Cell Based on Visual Detection Method," Baoding, Agricultural University of Hebei, May 2014.
        36. X. B. Wang, J. Li, M. H. Yao, W. X. He, and Y. T. Qian, "Solar Cells Surface Defects Detection Based on Deep Learning," PR&AI, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 517-523, June 2014.
        37. T. K. Wen and C. C. Yin, "Crack Detection in Photovoltaic Cells by Interferometric Analysis of Electronic Speckle Patterns," Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 216-223, January 2011.
        38. P. Xu, W. J. Zhou, and M. R. Fei, "Detection Methods for Micro-cracked Defects of Photovoltaic Modules Based on Machine Vision," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Cloud Computing, pp. 609-613, Shenzhen, China, November 2014.
        39. M. H. Yao, J. Li, and X. B. Wang, "Solar Cell Surface Defects Detection Using RPCA Method," Chinese Journal of Computers, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 1943-1952, September 2013.
        40. H. N. Yen and Y. J. Sie, "Machine Vision System for Surface Defect Inspection of Printed Silicon Solar Cells," in Proceedings of the Consumer Electronics, pp. 422-424, Tokyo, Japan, October 2012.
        41. X. Zhang, J. Hu, Y. Wu, and F. Lu, "Direct Observation of Defects in Triple-junction Solar Cell by Optical Deep-level Transient Spectroscopy," Journal of Physics D Applied Physics, vol. 42, no. 14, pp. 145401-145405, July 2009.


              Please note : You will need Adobe Acrobat viewer to view the full articles.Get Free Adobe Reader

              This site uses encryption for transmitting your passwords.